An Introduction to Metallurgy / Alan Cottrell

BUY

CONTENTS

1 Prologue

  • The art and science of metals
  • Chemical metallurgy
  • Mechanical metallurgy
  • Physical metallurgy
  • Metallurgical science and industry

2 The Atomic Nucleus

  • Composition of nuclei
  • Nuclear binding
  • Radioactive changes
  • Uses of radioactivity
  • Materials in nuclear reactors
  • Origin and abundance of the elements

3 Atomic Structure

  • Electropositive and electronegative elements
  • The periodic table
  • Quantum mechanics
  • The Schrodinger equation
  • The hydrogen atom
  • Atomic structures of the elements
  • Sizes of atoms and ions

4 Chemical Bonding

  • Forces between atoms
  • Origin of interatomic forces
  • Covalent bonding
  • Transition to ionic bonding
  • Transition to metallic bonding
  • The metallic state 

5 Heat and Energy

  • Thermodynamics
  • Internal energy and enthalpy
  • Standard thermodynamic properties
  • Combustion
  • Furnaces

6 Entropy and Free Energy

  • Direction of chemical change
  • Entropy
  • Free energy
  • Phase changes; vaporization
  • The physical nature of entropy
  • The exponential energy distribution
  • Activation energy

7 Free Energies of Metallic Compounds

  • The Ellingham diagram
  • Effect of temperature
  • Dissociation temperature and pressure
  • The equilibrium constant
  • Oxidizingreducing gas mixtures
  • Solutions
  • Refractories

8 Extraction of Metals

  • Metallic ores
  • Concentration of ore
  • Slags
  • Tin
  • Sulphide ores
  • Copper. Nickel. Zinc
  • The zinc blast furnace

9 Electrochemical Extraction and Refining Processes

  • Electrolysis
  • Aluminium
  • Magnesium, calcium and alkali metals
  • Electrochemistry of aqueous solutions
  • Electrolytic extraction from aqueous solutions
  • Electrolytic refining in aqueous solutions

10 Extraction of Reactive and Refractory Metals

  • Introduction
  • The Pidgeon process for magnesium
  • Use of halides
  • Titanium
  • Uranium
  • Refractory metals
  • Tungsten and Molybdenum

11 Iron and Steel Making

  • Introduction
  • The iron-making blast furnace
  • Chemistry of ironmaking
  • Recent developments in the blast furnace method
  • Wrought iron
  • Early steel-making processes
  • The Bessemer process
  • The open hearth process
  • Killed and rimming steels
  • Electric steel-making
  • Ferro-alloys
  • Oxygen steel-making

12 Kinetics of Metallurgical Reactions

  • Introduction
  • Theory of reaction rates
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions
  • Diffusion and heat conduction
  • Effects of mixing
  • Nucleation

13 Solids, Liquids and Solidification

  • Metal crystals
  • Liquid metals
  • Nucleation of crystals from a melt
  • Nucleation of melting
  • Glasses
  • Growth of crystals from a melt
  • The grain structure of metals
  • Solidification of solutions and impure metals
  • Structures of cast metals
  • Casting and related processes
  • Growth of single crystals

14 Alloys

  • Types of alloys
  • Solid solutions
  • Primary substitutional solid solutions
  • Intermediate phases
  • Interstitial phases
  • The free energy of solid solutions
  • Phase mixtures
  • The stable state of an alloy
  • Equations of phase equilibrium; the phase rule
  • The free energy of intermediate phases
  • Variation of solubility with temperature
  • Long-range order in solid solutions
  • Short-range order and antiphase domains
  • Ordering of carbon atoms in martensite

15 The Phase Diagram

  • Introduction
  • Complete miscibility in the solid state
  • Partial miscibility in the solid state
  • Systems containing intermediate phases
  • More complicated phase diagrams
  • Phase changes in alloys
  • Zone refining
  • The determination of phase diagrams
  • Gas-metal systems
  • The chemical potential

16 Ternary Phase Diagrams

  • Representation of the phase diagram
  • Simple eutectic system
  • Horizontal sections
  • Vertical sections
  • Ternary solid solutions
  • More complex diagrams

17 Metal Crystals – I Periodicity

  • Introduction
  • Periodicity
  • Translational symmetry and crystal plasticity
  • Dislocations
  • Miller indices
  • Burgers vectors and glide systems in metals
  • Diffraction of x-rays
  • Electron and neutron diffraction
  • Electron microscopy
  • Field-ion microscopy

18 Metal Crystals – II Directionality

  • Rotational symmetry
  • Stereographic projection
  • Anisotropy
  • Strain
  • Stress
  • Hooke’s law
  • Plastic glide of metal crystals
  • Plasticity of polycrystals
  • Coherent and non-coherent crystal boundaries

19 Metal Crystals – III Energies and Processes

  • Cohesion
  • Thermal properties
  • Energies of dislocations
  • Energies of surfaces
  • Grain boundaries and interfaces
  • Misfit energies of solute atoms and inclusions
  • Energies of point defects
  • Diffusion
  • Vacancy creep and sintering
  • Radiation damage

20 Heat-treatment of Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions
  • Development of commercial age-hardening alloys
  • Heat-treatment of steels
  • Formation of pearlite
  • Pro-eutectoid reactions
  • Formation of bainite
  • Formation of martensite
  • Tempering of quenched steel
  • Case-hardening of steel

21 Mechanical Properties

  • The tensile test
  • The yield stress
  • Yield points in metals
  • Effects of grain size
  • Alloy hardening
  • Work hardening
  • Recovery, recrystallization, and hot working
  • Combined dispersion hardening and work hardening
  • Creep
  • Theory of fracture
  • Brittle fracture of steel
  • Chemical embrittlement
  • Creep rupture
  • Metal fatigue
  • Fibre strengthening

22 Plastic Working

  • Introduction
  • Simple elongation
  • Forging
  • Mechanics of plane strain deformation
  • The friction hill
  • Surface indentation
  • Rolling
  • Extrusion
  • Wire drawing
  • Deep drawing and sheet metal working
  • Seamless tube making
  • Metal working at high speeds
  • Superplasticity

23 Oxidation and Corrosion

  • Introduction
  • Oxidation
  • Prevention of oxidation
  • Corrosion in acids and alkalies
  • Electrochemical corrosion
  • Atmospheric corrosion
  • Intergranular corrosion and dezincification
  • Prevention or restraint of corrosion
  • Stress-corrosion
  • Corrosion-fatigue

24 Electronic Structure and Properties

  • Electrons in a lattice
  • Brillouin zones
  • Metals and insulators
  • Conductivity of metals
  • Semi-conductors
  • Zone theory of alloys
  • Magnetic properties
  • Magnetic domains
  • Superconductivity

25 Properties and Uses

  • Strength and cost
  • Plain carbon steels
  • Alloy steels
  • Cast iron
  • Strength and weight
  • Aluminium and its alloys
  • Chemical inertness
  • Copper and its alloys
  • Fusibility
  • High-temperature properties
  • Electromagnetic and nuclear properties