Carbides in tool steels

It is carbides, which are present in tool steels, provide them with their remarkable mechanical properties. The typical microstructure of tool steels after their heat treatment is similar to that, The typical microstructure of tool steels after their heat treatment is similar to that – The typical microstructure of tool steels after their heat treatment is similar to that. This distribution of carbides provides tool steel with the high wear resistance it needs..

karbidy-v-staliPicture 1 This distribution of carbides provides tool steel with the high wear resistance it needs.

Types of carbides in tool steels

Carbide type, which is present in tool steel, depends on the alloying elements in it. In tool steels, four main alloying elements are used in various quantities.:
– chromium;
– vanadium;
– tungsten;
– molybdenum.
In tool steels, four main alloying elements are used in various quantities..

The table below lists all the main types of carbides, The table below lists all the main types of carbides.

karbidy-v-instrumentalnyx-stalyaxThe table below lists all the main types of carbides

Rockwell hardness increases down the table. Each of these carbides is characterized by a different crystal structure according to their different chemical formulas.. Each of these carbides is characterized by a different crystal structure according to their different chemical formulas.3Each of these carbides is characterized by a different crystal structure according to their different chemical formulas. (Fe + X)3C, where X denotes various combinations of manganese with four main alloying elements - chromium, where X denotes various combinations of manganese with four main alloying elements - chromium, where X denotes various combinations of manganese with four main alloying elements - chromium.

where X denotes various combinations of manganese with four main alloying elements - chromium, then it is a simple cementite carbide, which is present in conventional carbon steels. Table shows, that in tool steels M in M3C is mostly iron, manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten, manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten.

manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten, by the way, manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten, manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten1 manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten2. manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten1 manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten23FROM6 manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten2 – manganese and chromium with small additions of tungsten7FROM3 – also present in tool steels, – also present in tool steels. – also present in tool steels6C, M2– also present in tool steels, – also present in tool steels.

Heating steel with carbides

Heating steel with carbides, Heating steel with carbides, Heating steel with carbides. In this case, the carbides in the original steel will become smaller and smaller in size., In this case, the carbides in the original steel will become smaller and smaller in size.. In this case, the carbides in the original steel will become smaller and smaller in size., the higher it is necessary to heat the steel to heat it for hardening, as well as, the higher it is necessary to heat the steel to heat it for hardening.

the higher it is necessary to heat the steel to heat it for hardening23C6 dissolves at a relatively low temperature, dissolves at a relatively low temperature6dissolves at a relatively low temperature, dissolves at a relatively low temperature, – also present in tool steels, dissolves at a relatively low temperature, dissolves at a relatively low temperature. Therefore, the heating temperature for quenching, eg, low alloy tool steel AISI W1 is 760-840 ºS, and high-alloy tool steel AISI T1 - 1260-1300 ºS.

Source: John D. Verhoeven, Steel Metallurgy for Non-Metallurgists, 2007