Application of carbon steels

Privates (ordinary) carbon steels

Ordinary steels are usually called unalloyed iron-carbon alloys., which contain up to 2,0 % carbon. In practice, most common steels also contain up to 1,0 % manganese, which inevitably remains after the deoxidation process. These steels are also called ordinary steels and ordinary steels.. They are the most common iron-carbon alloys, which are used in industry, construction and everyday life.

By varying the amount of carbon in the steel and choosing a heat treatment program for the steel, a wide range of different mechanical properties can be obtained for this carbon content., which are difficult to obtain in other metal alloys. Besides, carbon steel is a relatively inexpensive alloy compared to alloy steels and non-ferrous alloys. Apparently the biggest disadvantage of these steels is that, that they rust and you have to spend a lot of money to protect them from corrosion.

Applications of carbon steels

As it shown on the picture 1 the hardness of ordinary carbon steel gradually increases with increasing carbon content. Typically low and medium carbon steels are used in construction and structural applications., whereas high-carbon steels are used to make tools and other components, where high hardness and wear resistance are required.

Picture 1 - Relationship between carbon content,
microstructure and mechanical properties
ordinary carbon steels in normalized condition,
as well as typical applications for these steels [1]

 

Classification of carbon steels

Industrial carbon steels can be divided into five groups, as below. Each carbon range corresponds to its typical industrial application, construction, mechanical engineering and in everyday life.

Ultra-low carbon (dead mild steels)

0,05-0,15 % FROM:

  • chains
  • stamping
  • rivets
  • wire
  • nails
  • welded pipes
  • hot rolled strips
  • cold rolled strips

Low carbon steels (mild steel)

0,10-0,20 % FROM:

  • construction steels
  • screws and screws
  • machine parts
  • tin
  • forgings
  • stamping

0,20-0,30 % FROM:

  • parts of machines and building structures
  • gears
  • high speed steels
  • shafts
  • levers
  • forgings

Medium carbon steels (medium carbon steel)

0,30-0,40 % FROM:

  • thrust
  • shafts
  • wire
  • axes
  • butt pads
  • crane hooks
  • high-strength pipes
  • forgings

0,40-0,50 % FROM:

  • crankshafts
  • axes
  • gears
  • shafts
  • stamping blocks
  • rotors
  • rims
  • heat-treated machine parts

0,50-0,60 % FROM:

  • locomotive tires
  • rails
  • springs
  • ropes

High carbon steels (high carbon steels)

0,60-0,70 % FROM:

  • forging dies
  • screw drives
  • saws
  • repairs
  • tools
  • hollow drills

0,70-0,80 % FROM:

  • band saws
  • anvil
  • hammers
  • spanners
  • springs
  • bumpers
  • small forgings
  • ropes
  • matrices
  • large dies for presses

0,80-0,90 % FROM:

  • chisels
  • blade
  • punch and center punch
  • drill bits for stone
  • hand tools

Tool steel (tool steels)

0,90-1,00 % FROM:

  • springs
  • high tenacity wire
  • axes
  • knives
  • matrices
  • picks and kayla

1,00-1,10 % FROM:

  • drill
  • taps
  • cutters
  • knives
  • screw dies

1,10-1,20 % FROM:

  • bearings
  • matrices
  • drill
  • turning tools
  • woodworking tools

1,20-1,30 % FROM:

  • files
  • sweep
  • knives
  • broaches
  • turning tools
  • woodworking tools

1,30-1,40 % FROM:

  • saws
  • razor
  • drilling tools
  • finishing tools
  • wear-resistant machine parts.

Source:

  1. Engineering Metallurgy – Part I – Applied Physical Metallurgy / R. A. Higgins – 6thed. – 1999