Physical Metallurgy Principles (4th Edition) / REZA ABBASCHIAN & ROBERT E. REED-HILL

BUY

BRIEF CONTENTS

 CHAPTER 1 – THE STRUCTURE OF METALS

  • The Structure of Metals
  • Unit Cells
  • The Body-Centered Cubic Structure (BCC)
  • Coordination Number of the Body-Centered Cubic Lattice
  • The Face-Centered Cubic Lattice (FCC)
  • The Unit Cell of the Hexagonal Closed-Packed (HCP) Lattice
  • Comparison of the Face-Centered Cubic and
    Close-Packed Hexagonal Structures
  • Coordination Number of the Systems of Closest Packing
  • Anisotropy
  • Textures or Preferred Orientations
  • Miller Indices
  • Crystal Structures of the Metallic Elements
  • The Stereographic Projection
  • Directions that Lie in a Plane
  • Planes of a Zone
  • The Wulff Net
  • Standard Projections
  • The Standard Stereographic Triangle for Cubic Crystals
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 2 – CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES

  • The Bragg Law
  • Laue Techniques
  • The Rotating-CrystalMethod
  • The Debye-Scherrer or Powder Method
  • The X-RayDiffractometer
  • The Transmission Electron Microscope
  • Interactions Between the Electrons in an Electron Beam and a MetallicSpecimen
  • Elastic Scattering
  • Inelastic Scattering
  • Electron Spectrum
  • Scanning Electron Microscope
  • Topographic Contrast
  • The Picture Element Size
  • The Depth of Focus
  • Microanalysis of Specimens
  • Electron ProbeX-Ray Microanalysis
  • The Characteristic X-Rays
  • AugerElectron Spectroscopy (AES)
  • The Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM)
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 3 – CRYSTAL BINDING

  • The Internal Energy of a Crystal
  • Ionic Crystals
  • The BornTheory of Ionic Crystals
  • Van Der Waals Crystals
  • Dipoles
  • Inert Cases
  • Induced Dipoles
  • The Lattice Energy of an Inert-Gas Solid
  • The Debye Frequency
  • The Zero-PointEnergy
  • Dipole-Quadrupole and Quadrupole-Quadrupole Terms
  • Molecular Crystals
  • Refinements to the Born Theory of IonicCrystals
  • Covalent and Metallic Bonding
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 4 – INTRODUCTION TO DISLOCATIONS

  • The Discrepancy Between the Theoretical and Observed Yield Stresses of
    Crystals
  • Dislocations
  • The Burgers Vector
  • VectorNotation for Dislocations
  • Dislocations in the Face-Centered CubicLattice
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Stacking Faults in Face-Centered CubicMetals
  • Extended Dislocations in Hexagonal Metals
  • Climb of Edge Dislocations
  • Dislocation Intersections
  • The Stress Field of a Screw Dislocation
  • The Stress Field of an Edge Dislocation
  • The Force on a Dislocation
  • The Strain Energy of a ScrewDislocation
  • The Strain Energy of an Edge Dislocation
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 5 – DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION

  • The Frank-Read Source
  • Nucleation of Dislocations
  • BendGliding
  • Rotational Slip
  • Slip Planes and Slip Directions
  • Slip Systems
  • Critical Resolved Shear Stress
  • Slip on Equivalent Slip Systems
  • Dislocation Density
  • SlipSystems in Different Crystal Forms
  • Cross-Slip
  • SlipBands
  • Double Cross-Slip
  • Extended Dislocations and Cross-Slip
  • Crystal Structure Rotation During Tensile and Compressive Deformation
  • The Notation for the Slip Systems in the Deformation of FCC Crystals
  • Work Hardening
  • Considère’s Criterion
  • The Relation Between Dislocation Density and the Stress
  • Taylor’s Relation
  • The Orowan Equation
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 6 – ELEMENTS OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES

  • Grain Boundaries
  • Dislocation Model of a Small-Angle GrainBoundary
  • The Five Degrees of Freedom of a Grain Boundary
  • The Stress Field of a Grain Boundary
  • Grain-BoundaryEnergy
  • Low-Energy Dislocation Structures, LEDS
  • DynamicRecovery
  • Surface Tension of the Grain Boundary
  • Boundaries Between Crystals of Different Phases
  • The Grain Size
  • The Effect of Grain Boundaries on Mechanical Properties: Hall-Petch Relation
  • Grain Size Effects in NanocrystallineMaterials
  • Coincidence Site Boundaries
  • The Density of Coincidence Sites
  • The Ranganathan Relations
  • ExamplesInvolving Twist Boundaries
  • Tilt Boundaries
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 7 – VACANCIES

  • Thermal Behavior of Metals
  • Internal Energy
  • Entropy
  • Spontaneous Reactions
  • Gibbs Free Energy
  • Statistical Mechanical Definition of Entropy
  • Vacancies
  • Vacancy Motion
  • Interstitial Atoms and Divacancies
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 8 – ANNEALING

  • Stored Energy of Cold Work
  • The Relationship of Free Energy to Strain Energy
  • The Release of Stored Energy
  • Recovery
  • Recovery in Single Crystals
  • Polygonization
  • DislocationMovements in Polygonization
  • Recovery Processes at High and Low Temperatures
  • Recrystallization
  • The Effect of Time andTemperature on Recrystallization
  • Recrystallization Temperature
  • The Effect of Strain on Recrystallization
  • The Rate of Nucleationand the Rate of Nucleus Growth
  • Formation of Nuclei
  • Driving Force for Recrystallization
  • The RecrystallizedGrain Size
  • Other Variables in Recrystallization
  • Purity of the Metal
  • Initial Grain Size
  • Grain Growth
  • Geometrical Coalescence
  • Three-Dimensional Changes in GrainGeometry
  • The Grain Growth Law
  • Impurity Atoms inSolid Solution
  • Impurities in the Form of Inclusions
  • The Free-Surface Effects
  • The Limiting Grain Size
  • PreferredOrientation
  • Secondary Recrystallization
  • Strain-InducedBoundary Migration
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 9 – SOLID SOLUTIONS

  • Solid Solutions
  • Intermediate Phases
  • Interstitial SolidSolutions
  • Solubility of Carbon in Body-Centered Cubic Iron
  • Substitutional Solid Solutions and the Hume-Rothery Rules
  • Interaction of Dislocations and Solute Atoms
  • DislocationAtmospheres
  • The Formation of a Dislocation Atmosphere
  • The Evaluation of A
  • The Drag of Atmospheres on MovingDislocations
  • The Sharp Yield Point and Lüders Bands
  • The Theory of the Sharp Yield Point
  • Strain Aging
  • The Cottrell-Bilby Theory of Strain Aging
  • Dynamic Strain Aging
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 10 – PHASES

  • Basic Definitions
  • The Physical Nature of Phase Mixtures
  • Thermodynamics of Solutions
  • Equilibrium Between TwoPhases
  • The Number of Phases in an Alloy System
  • Two Component Systems Containing Two Phases
  • GraphicalDeterminations of Partial-Molal Free Energies
  • Two-ComponentSystems with Three Phases in Equilibrium
  • The Phase Rule
  • Ternary Systems
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 11 – BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS

  • Phase Diagrams
  • Isomorphous Alloy Systems
  • The LeverRule
  • Equilibrium Heating or Cooling of an Isomorphous Alloy
  • The Isomorphous Alloy System from the Point of View of Free Energy
  • Maxima and Minima
  • Superlattices
  • MiscibilityGaps
  • Eutectic Systems
  • The Microstructures of EutecticSystems
  • The Peritectic Transformation
  • Monotectics
  • Other Three-Phase Reactions
  • Intermediate Phases
  • The Copper-Zinc Phase Diagram
  • Ternary Phase Diagrams
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 12 – DIFFUSION IN SUBSTITUTIONAL SOLID SOLUTIONS

  • Diffusion in an Ideal Solution
  • The Kirkendall Effect
  • Pore Formation
  • Darken’s Equations
  • Fick’s Second Law
  • The Matano Method
  • Determination of the IntrinsicDiffusivities
  • Self-Diffusion in Pure Metals
  • Temperature Dependence of the Diffusion Coefficient
  • Chemical Diffusion at Low-Solute Concentration
  • The Study of Chemical DiffusionUsing Radioactive Tracers
  • Diffusion Along Grain Boundaries and Free Surfaces
  • Fick’s First Law in Terms of a Mobility and an Effective Force
  • Diffusion in Non-Isomorphic Alloy Systems
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 13 – INTERSTITIAL DIFFUSION

  • Measurement of Interstitial Diffusivities
  • The Snoek Effect
  • Experimental Determination of the Relaxation Time
  • Experimental Data
  • Anelastic Measurements at Constant Strain
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 14 – SOLIDIFICATION OF METALS

  • The Liquid Phase
  • Nucleation
  • Metallic Glasses
  • Crystal Growth from the Liquid Phase
  • The Heats of Fusion and Vaporization
  • The Nature of the Liquid-Solid Interface
  • Continuous Growth
  • Lateral Growth
  • StableInterface Freezing
  • Dendritic Growth in Pure Metals
  • Freezing in Alloys with Planar Interface
  • The ScheilEquation
  • Dendritic Freezing in Alloys
  • Freezing of Ingots
  • The Grain Size of Castings
  • Segregation
  • Homogenization
  • Inverse Segregation
  • Porosity
  • Eutectic Freezing
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 15 – NUCLEATION AND GROWTH KINETICS

  • Nucleation of a Liquid from the Vapor
  • The Becker-DöringTheory
  • Freezing
  • Solid-State Reactions
  • Heterogeneous Nucleation
  • Growth Kinetics
  • Diffusion Controlled Growth
  • Interference of Growing PrecipitateParticles
  • Interface Controlled Growth
  • TransformationsThat Occur on Heating
  • Dissolution of a Precipitate
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 16 – PRECIPITATION HARDENING

  • The Significance of the Solvus Curve
  • The Solution Treatment
  • The Aging Treatment
  • Development of Precipitates
  • Aging of Al-Cu Alloys at Temperatures Above 100°C (373 K)
  • Precipitation Sequences in Other Aluminum Alloys
  • Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Nucleation of Precipitates
  • Interphase Precipitation
  • Theories of Hardening
  • Additional Factors in Precipitation Hardening
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 17 – DEFORMATION TWINNING AND MARTENSITE REACTIONS

  • Deformation Twinning
  • Formal Crystallographic Theory of Twinning
  • Twin Boundaries
  • Twin Growth
  • Accommodation of the Twinning Shear
  • The Significance of Twinning in Plastic Deformation
  • The Effect of Twinning on FaceCentered Cubic Stress-Strain Curves
  • Martensite
  • The BainDistortion
  • The Martensite Transformation in an Indium-ThalliumAlloy
  • Reversibility of the Martensite Transformation
  • Athermal Transformation
  • Phenomenological CrystallographicTheory of Martensite Formation
  • Irrational Nature of the Habit Plane
  • The Iron-Nickel Martensitic Transformation
  • Isothermal Formation of Martensite
  • Stabilization
  • Nucleation of Martensite Plates
  • Growth of MartensitePlates
  • The Effect of Stress
  • The Effect of PlasticDeformation
  • Thermoelastic Martensite Transformations
  • Elastic Deformation of Thermoelastic Alloys
  • Stress-InducedMartensite (SIM)
  • The Shape-Memory Effect
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 18 – THE IRON-CARBON ALLOY SYSTEM

  • The Iron-Carbon Diagram
  • The Proeutectoid Transformations ofAustenite
  • The Transformation of Austenite to Pearlite
  • The Growth of Pearlite
  • The Effect of Temperature on the PearliteTransformation
  • Forced-Velocity Growth of Pearlite
  • The Effects of Alloying Elements on the Growth of Pearlite
  • The Rate of Nucleation of Pearlite
  • Time-Temperature-Transformation Curves
  • The Bainite Reaction
  • The Complete T-T-T Diagram of an Eutectoid Steel
  • Slowly Cooled Hypoeutectoid Steels
  • Slowly Cooled Hypereutectoid Steels
  • Isothermal Transformation Diagrams for Noneutectoid Steels
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 19 – THE HARDENING OF STEEL

  • Continuous Cooling Transformations (CCT)
  • Hardenability
  • The Variables that Determine the Hardenability of a Steel
  • Austenitic Grain Size
  • The Effect of Austenitic Grain Size onHardenability
  • The Influence of Carbon Content on Hardenability
  • The Influence of Alloying Elements on Hardenability
  • The Significance of Hardenability
  • The MartensiteTransformation in Steel
  • The Hardness of Iron-CarbonMartensite
  • Dimensional Changes Associated with Transformation of Martensite
  • Quench Cracks
  • Tempering
  • Tempering of a Low-Carbon Steel
  • Spheroidized Cementite
  • The Effect of Tempering on Physical Properties
  • TheInterrelation Between Time and Temperature in Tempering
  • Secondary Hardening
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 20 – SELECTED NONFERROUS ALLOY SYSTEMS

  • Commercially Pure Copper
  • Copper Alloys
  • CopperBeryllium
  • Other Copper Alloys
  • Aluminum Alloys
  • Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
  • Titanium Alloys
  • Classification of Titanium Alloys
  • The Alpha Alloys
  • The Beta Alloys
  • The Alpha-Beta Alloys
  • Superalloys
  • Creep Strength
  • Problems
  • References

CHAPTER 21 – FAILURE OF METALS

  • Failure by Easy Glide
  • Rupture by Necking (Multiple Glide)
  • The Effect of Twinning
  • Cleavage
  • TheNucleation of Cleavage Cracks
  • Propagation of Cleavage Cracks
  • The Effect of Grain Boundaries
  • The Effect of the State ofStress
  • Ductile Fractures
  • Intercrystalline BrittleFracture
  • Blue Brittleness
  • Fatigue Failures
  • The Macroscopic Character of Fatigue Failure
  • The RotatingBeam Fatigue Test
  • Alternating Stress Parameters
  • TheMicroscopic Aspects of Fatigue Failure
  • Fatigue Crack Growth
  • The Effect of Nonmetallic Inclusions
  • The Effect of SteelMicrostructure on Fatigue
  • Low-Cycle Fatigue
  • The Coffin-Manson Equation
  • Certain Practical Aspects of Fatigue
  • Problems
  • References

APPENDICES

  • Angles Between Crystallographic Planes in the
    Cubic System (In Degrees)
  • Angles Between Crystallographic Planes for
    Hexagonal Elements
  • Indices of the Reflecting Planes for Cubic Structures
  • Conversion Factors and Constants Twinning Elements of Several of the More
    Important Twinning Modes
  • Selected Values of Intrinsic Stacking-Fault Energy, Twin-Boundary Energy, Grain-Boundary Energy, and Crystal-Vapor Surface Energy for Various
    Materials