Steels: Metallurgy and Applications, 3rd Edition (1996) / David Llewellyn

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CONTENTS

Preface

1 Low-carbon strip steels

  • Overview
  • General processing considerations
  • Underlying metallurgical principles
  • Cold-forming behaviour
    • Work-hardening coefficients and normal anisotropy
    • True stress and true strain
    • The strain ratio r or Lankford value
  • The work-hardening coefficient n
    • Forming limit diagrams
    • Other forming effects
    • Surface roughness
    • Use of laser-welded tailored blanks
    • Hydroforming
    • Roll forming
    • Finite element modelling
  • Strip steel manufacture
    • Mild or low-strength steels
    • Continuously annealed, aluminium-killed steel
    • High-strength steels
  • Zinc-coated steels
    • Production methods
    • Corrosion resistance
    • Cold-forming behaviour
    • Other hot dip coatings
    • Organic-coated steels
  • Steel prices
  • Tinplate
    • Method of manufacture
    • Canmaking processes
  • Joining methods
    • Welding
    • Mechanical joining
    • Joining using fasteners
    • Use of adhesives in weldbonding, clinchbonding and rivbonding
  • Strip steel in use
    • Fatigue
    • Cold work embrittlement
  • Strip steel in automotive applications
    • Weight reduction and the use of high-strength steels
    • Improved corrosion resistance
  • Strip steels in buildings
    • Steel-framed houses
    • Steel cladding
    • Steel lintels
  • Other applications for strip steels
    • Domestic appliances
    • Steel drums
    • Sound deadened steel
    • Vitreous enamelled products
  • References

2 Low-carbon structural steels

  • Overview
  • Underlying metallurgical principles
  • Strengthening mechanisms in structural steels
    • Ferrite grain refinement
    • Solid solution strengthening
    • Precipitation strengthening
    • Transformation strengthening
    • Structure-property relationships in ferrite-pearlite steels
  • Controlled rolling/thermomechanical processing
    • Outline of process
    • Slab reheating
    • Rolling
    • Transformation to ferrite
  • Standard specifications
  • Steel prices
  • Weathering steels
    • Corrosion resistance
    • Steel specifications
  • Clean steels and inclusion shape control
  • Ships
    • Standard-strength steels
    • Higher-strength steels
    • Design considerations
  • Offshore structures
    • Design considerations
    • Steel selection
    • Cast steel nodes
  • Reinforcing bars
    • Standard specifications
    • Traditional reinforcing steels
    • Controlled-cooled bars
  • Steel bridges
    • Design against brittle fracture
  • Steel in multi-storey buildings
    • Building code requirements
  • Steels for pipelines
    • Specifications and property requirements
    • Linepipe manufacturing processes
    • Steel compositions for linepipe
    • Pipeline fittings
    • Steels for sour gas service
  • References

3 Engineering steels

  • Overview
  • Underlying metallurgical principles
  • Heat treatment aspects
    • Isothermal transformation diagrams
    • Continuous-cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams
    • Hardenability testing
    • Factors affecting hardenability
    • Tempering resistance
    • Surface-hardening treatments
    • Distortion in case-carburized components
  • Standard specifications
  • Steel prices
  • Machinable steels
    • Machinability testing
    • Role of free cutting additives
    • Low-carbon free cutting steels
    • Medium-carbon free cutting steels
    • Machinable low-alloy steels
    • Machinable stainless steels
  • Steels for gas containers
    • Steel compositions
    • Design and manufacture
    • Hydrogen gas containers
    • Higher-strength steels
  • Bearing steels
    • Bearing fatigue testing
    • Factors affecting fatigue performance
    • Modem steelmaking methods
  • High-speed steels
    • Role of alloying elements
    • Heat treatment
    • Standard specifications and uses
  • Maraging steels
    • Metallurgy
    • Commercial grades
    • Corrosion behaviour
    • Applications
  • Steels for steam power turbines
    • Turbine casings
    • HP and IP rotors
    • LP rotors
    • Turbine generator end tings
    • Turbine bolts
    • Turbine blades
  • Medium-high-carbon pearlitic steels
  • Rail steels
    • Rail steel specifications
    • Wear resistance of rails
    • Austenitic 14% Mn rails
  • Micro-alloy forging steels
    • Metallurgical considerations
    • Commercial exploitation
  • Controlled processed bars
    • Normalized steels
    • Quenched and tempered steels
  • High-carbon wire rod
    • Rod rolling and conditioning
    • Wire drawing
    • Micro-alloy, high-carbon rod
  • References

 

4 Stainless steels

  • Overview
  • Underlying metallurgical principles
  • Composition-structure relationships
    • Iron-chromium alloys
    • Iron-chromium-nickel alloys
    • Other alloy additions
  • Commercial grades of stainless steels
    • Martensitic stainless steels
    • Ferritic stainless steels
    • Austenitic stainless steels
    • Controlled transformation stainless steels
  • Steel prices
  • Corrosion resistance
    • Intergranular corrosion
    • Pitting corrosion
    • Stress corrosion cracking
  • High-alloy stainless steels
    • High-alloy austenitic/duplex grades
    • High-alloy ferritic grades
  • Welding of stainless steels
    • Martensitic stainless steels
    • Austenitic stainless steels
    • Ferritic stainless steels
    • Variable weld penetration
  • Cold working of stainless steels
    • Role of alloying elements
    • Work hardening of commercial grades
    • Optimization of cold-forming properties
  • Mechanical properties at elevated and sub-zero temperatures
    • Tensile properties
    • Impact properties
  • Steels for boilers and pressure vessels
    • Steel specifications
    • Pressure vessel codes
    • Steels for elevated-temperature applications
    • Steels for low-temperature applications
  • Steels in fossil-fired power plants
    • Boiler layout and operation
    • Steel selection
    • Co-extruded tubing
  • Flue gas desulphurization equipment
  • Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant
  • Corrosion/abrasion-resistant grades
  • Automotive exhausts/catalytic converters
  • Architectural applications
  • References

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